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Solid state batteries – Toyota’s hope

Solid-state batteries are promised by Toyota will change the game not only for electric cars but also for the entire auto industry.

Soild-state battery technology is a potential solution to all the limitations faced by conventional lithium-ion electric vehicles, including short travel distances on a single charge. like charging time. That would be 500 kilometers per charge, and 10 minutes of full charge. Toyota plans to become the first company to sell electric vehicles with solid-state batteries in the near future. The world’s largest car maker will announce a new model next year.

The electric cars being researched and developed by Toyota will have a range that is twice as high as a conventional lithium-ion battery under the same conditions. All are completed without affecting the interior space of even the most compact car.

Toyota’s electric vehicle development platform is called e-TNGA. Image: Toyota

Solid state batteries are expected to become a viable alternative to lithium-ion batteries using liquid electrolyte solutions. The innovation reduces the risk of fire and increases energy relative to battery weight.

It takes about 10 minutes to charge an electric vehicle equipped with a solid state battery, reducing charging time by 2/3. The battery can extend the mileage of a compact electric vehicle, while retaining comfortable legroom.

Toyota tops the global rankings with more than 1,000 patents relating to solid state batteries. Nissan Motor also plans to develop its own solid-state batteries to power a vehicle by 2028. This will make new battery technology affect companies in the supply chain.

Japanese auto parts makers are rushing to build the infrastructure needed to supply car manufacturers. For example, Mitsui Mining & Smelting, commonly known as Mitsui Kinzoku – a company specializing in the supply and manufacture of car parts and accessories, will establish a pilot facility to produce solid electrolytes. for battery. The production site is located at the research and development center in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The company can produce tens of tons of solid electrolytes annually next year, enough to fulfill orders.

Idemitsu Kosan, an oil and gas company, is installing equipment to manufacture solid electrolytes in Chiba Prefecture with the goal of commencing operations next year. The production of solid electrolytes requires the solidification of sulfides – special compounds in the chemical and metal industries. Sumitomo Chemical – a Japanese chemical company is also developing materials.

Japanese manufacturers such as Sony and Panasonic have pioneered the commercialization of vehicle battery packs. But since the late 2000s, competitors from China have emerged. Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited (CATL), is currently the largest supplier of lithium-ion batteries in the world. Japan’s Asahi Kasei, once a global leader in battery separation materials, gave up the throne last year to Shanghai Energy.

Electric motor vehicles are expected to become ubiquitous in the context of a global shift away from carbon emissions. The Japanese government has been encouraging the development of solid-state batteries, with the view that much of the technology related to car performance will depend on China if the status quo is maintained.

The Japanese government is creating a fund of about $ 19.2 billion to support carbon emission technologies. Policymakers will consider using the money to provide subsidies of hundreds of billions of yen to fund the development of new batteries.

The goal is to support the development of infrastructure for mass production in Japan. Since solid state batteries use lithium, an element with limited reserves in the world, the government will support the purchase of lithium.

As for European carmakers, Volkswagen plans to produce solid-state batteries as early as 2025 through a joint venture with an American startup.

In China, QingTao Technology Corporation (Kunshan) Energy Development will spend $ 153 million on research and development of solid-state battery production, among other fields. The investment will last for three years starting from 2021.

Minh Quan (according to the Nikkei)


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