Depending on the market, electric vehicle manufacturers use different charging standards or plugs.
There are many reasons to decide to switch from gas cars to electric cars. Electric vehicles (EVs) are quieter, lower operating costs, and emit less emissions. However, not all electric and plug-in vehicles are created equal. Standard plugs or chargers vary from region to region. With electric vehicles, the charging port and the charging station are two important factors that determine the success.
Electric vehicle charging levels are divided into 3 levels, based on speed and capacity. The level system starts with the lowest charge level 1. Charge levels are very important, they have different pros and cons. Each charging level also depends on the charging time and the vehicle usage situation.
Level 1 (level 1) – 120V
Level 1 is like the popular charging option, if there’s a wall outlet nearby, you can charge it. The weak point of this charger is the slow charging speed. For example, if charging a 2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E fitted with an 88 kWh battery pack with a current of 110-120 V, it takes 63 hours to fully charge, according to the test results of the company. Electrek.
Level 2 (level 2) – 240V
Level 2 charging is faster with double voltage. Level 2 chargers are common at public charging stations. Many electric car manufacturers recommend that car owners install a level 2 charger in their home or garage if possible. Similarly, for example with the Mustang Mach-E above, the time to fully charge the battery takes only 11.5 hours.
Level 3 (level 3) – direct current (DC)
DC chargers use their own power supply, with currents greater than 480V and more than 100A. DC fast chargers can provide 50-350 kW of electricity, some countries in Europe can go up to 400 kW. Depending on the available power source, a level 3 charger can charge an electric vehicle in 20-30 minutes. Fast chargers are often installed at highway stops and shopping malls.
Electric vehicle charging standard ports
Charging standard J1772
J1772 is the industry standard for all electric vehicles that perform Level 1 (level 1) or Level 2 (level 2) charging.
Electric vehicle manufacturers in the US use the SAE J1772 connector, also known as the J plug, for Level 1 (120V) and Level 2 (220-240 V) charging. Tesla alone uses its own charging standard, but each car sold is equipped with an adapter to use J1772. Other electric vehicle manufacturers cannot use Tesla’s proprietary charging port.
Initially, CHAdeMO evolved to become the industry standard charging port, developed by Japanese automakers. Today, the CHAdeMO charging port is still popular in Japan, used by car manufacturers such as Toyota, Mitsubishi, Subaru, and Nissan.
CCS – Combined Charging System (Combined Charging System)
Immediately after the introduction of CHAdeMO, the second charging port evolved as an additional standard called the CCS hybrid charging system. The CCS charging port differs from CHAdeMO in that it allows AC/DC charging on the same port. Electric vehicles equipped with CHAdeMO require an additional J1772 connection cord to be able to charge level 1 or level 2.
Gradually, CCS became the preferred charging port in European and American markets, including BMW, Jaguar Land Rover, GM, Polestar, Volkswagen, even Tesla. Since 2018, the alliance of major automobile corporations has committed to using the same CCS 2 charging port standard, with a capacity stronger than the first generation CCS. VinFast’s VF e34 electric car uses a CSS 2 charging port.
Tesla built its own electric vehicle charging standard with a Supercharger charging port. This exclusive charging port is for use in the US and offers CHAdeMO, CCS adapters for certain markets. For example the Model 3 with CCS charger in Europe.
In addition to chargers and charging ports, car manufacturers also develop battery management applications, manage charging stations, help vehicles easily find charging points and protocols for identification.
Minh Vu (follow Electrek)